The terrorist use of diseases as bioweapons has been one of the major security concerns in recent years, particularly after the anthrax letter attacks in the USA in 2001. This uncertain threat of intentional outbreaks of diseases exists side by side with the constantly changing very real threat from diseases, epidemics and pandemics as recently illustrated by the H1N1 influenza pandemic, SARS, and H5N1 bird influenza events.
This publication contains case studies on the public health planning for (un)usual disease outbreaks for 11 large and small countries with a focus on South Eastern Europe. In many countries, military entities traditionally play an important role in emergency response to disease outbreaks. In smaller countries, very little exists, however, in terms of specific biopreparedness efforts (in both the military and civilian area), which is at least partly due to a relatively low bioterrorism threat perception, and serious resource constraints.
The uncertainty associated with the bioterrorism threat makes public health preparedness planning for such events politically and financially very difficult. The similarity of responding to bioterrorism events and natural disease outbreaks from a public health point of view suggests the merit of looking at biopreparedness as a part of overall health emergency planning, not as a separate effort.
Each season has its own particular work for the farmer, and he does his work without direction from or consultation with his neighbors or any one else. Each season has its own particular games for the young folks, and they take to them without any suggestion from outsiders, just as young ducks take to water, without any instructions from the mother bird. The seasons in the south temperate zone are just the opposite to those in the north. Some years ago I spent the months of July and August in New Zealand, and great was my surprise to find the boys down at Dunedin snowballing on the Fourth of July, while the sleigh-bells made music through the streets. In the following October, which is the spring month in Victoria, Australia, I found the youngsters of Melbourne playing marbles, just as the boys in New York had been doing when I left it the previous May.
Within the pages of this book you will find a variety of different species of birds from around the world for your own colouring creativity. Simply relax, de-stress yourself and use your own imagination when colouring in these wonderful bird designs. Each of the individual designs are intentionally printed on a single page with the reverse left blank. By leaving the reverse blank, you can easily cut out your colouring and create a picture that will be perfect for displaying or framing purposes.
This guide focuses on health economics and financing with the objectives of providing readers with a basic vocabulary and understanding of the most important issues. The guide is organized into five main sections. Section 1 discusses some key health and development issues, including health and poverty, as well as globalization. Section 2 is devoted to a discussion of the provision and financing of health care. It covers topics such as public-private mix privatization, the role of governments as purchasers of health services and health care financing alternatives - including tax-based financing, external funding, financing through efficiency gains, and user charges. Section 3 covers key health insurance concepts and issues, such as private (for-profit) insurance, medical savings accounts, key characteristics of social health insurance, and provider payment issues and options. Section 4 discusses issues and options in resource allocation and prioritization, including costing of health services and cost analysis. Section 5 focuses on national health accounts. Topics in this section include development of implementing NHAs and their use. All sections end with selected references. A glossary of selected technical terms and concepts is provided at the end.
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